**Docenten:**

Rien van de Weygaert,

ZG 186, tel. 3634086, weygaert@astro.rug.nl

Johan Hidding,

ZG 185, tel. 3634085, hidding@astro.rug.nl

**Lectures:**

The lecture schedule will be:

Monday 09:00-11:00 hoorcollege/lecture ZG 161

Wednesday 09:00-11:00 hoorcollege/lecture ZG 161

Friday 11:00-13:00 werkcollege/tutorials ZG 257

**Announcements:**

First lecture will be on monday November 12, the first tutorial on friday November 16

Exam will be on Friday January 25, 14:00-17:30 (ZG161)

There will be a special guest lecture by prof. Sergei Shandarin, on the Zeldovich & Adhesion
approximation. Date and place will be announced later.

November 28: lecture cancelled, lecturer ill.

Wednesday December 12: regular lectures

Friday December 14: lecture by prof. S. Shandarin on the Zel'dovich & Adhesion formalism; replaces
werkcollege.

**Required Knowledge:**

It will be assumed you will have followed the basic lecture course "Cosmology". It is
not a formal requisite.

A recapitulation, overview and summary of the necessary knowledge of basic Cosmology (including some General Relativity),
will be the subject of the first week's lecture.

**Exam:**

The exam will consist of three/four elements:

written exam -- January 25, 2013: 14:00-17:30

presentation special topic

3 computer tasks

**Literature:**

The course will be based upon the lecture notes, to be distributed during the course.

No specific book will be followed. Nonetheless, several books are recommended for the purpose

of the necessary backup information, overlapping substantially with parts of the lecture material:

Cosmology

Steven Weinberg

Oxford University Press, 2008

ISBN 978-0198526827

Cosmological Physics

John Peacock

Cambridge University Press, 1998

ISBN 0521422701 (paper)

The most up-to-date books focussing on structure and galaxy formation are:

Galaxy
Formation

Malcolm Longair

Astronomy & Astrophysics Library, 2nd ed., Springer

ISBN 9783540734772 (hb)

Galaxy Formation and
Evolution

H.J. Mo, F. van den Bosch, S.D.M. White

Cambridge Univ. Press

ISBN 978-0521857932 (hb)

In addition, THE book on basic cosmology that I will always warmly recommend (but which you are not required
to have) - one of the few textbooks really fun reading and a marvel of didactic writing -- is:

Introduction to Cosmology

Barbara Ryden

Addison Wesley, 2002

ISBN 0805389121 (hardcover)

**Lecture Notes & Exam Material:**

The course is based upon the lecture notes. Below you find a listing of the notes.

The notes you can download in 3 forms:

* ppt file, a colour pdf (handout, 2 slices/page) and a greyscale pdf (handout, 2 slices/page)

* pdf file texed notes

* xerox copy, distributed during the course

Below you find a listing of the notes, and I will notify you when they become available. Subsequently, they
will be available for downloading.

Please check the notes you have. When you are missing one or more items contact me.

FRW cosmology ppt

FRW Cosmology handout, pdf

study thoroughly: basic to understanding of the course

Overview: Large Scale Structure of the Universe ppt

Overview: Large Scale Structure of the Universe handout, pdf

study thoroughly, overview of course material

Galaxy Redshift Surveys ppt

Galaxy Redshift Surveys, h2pdf handout, pdf, colour

read thoroughly: while not necessary to know all details, you may
be asked to reproduce general facts on e.g. SDSS survey.
Necessary to know in detail: listing of "cosmic fossils" (and what they mean), galaxy luminosity function,
Schechter function, survey depths, survey strategies, photometric redshifts, magnitude- and volume-limited surveys, ...

Gravitational Instability Theory Handout

Overview & Outline gravitational instability theory (& course)

Linear Perturbation Theory pdf

Key chapter !!!!!! You must be able to follow all equations
(and work with them).

Know by heart: comoving vs. physical perturbation quantities (eqn. 2,3,10,15,16,18), full and linear fluid equations (particularly: eqns. sect. 6.1), linear perturbation eqn.(eqn. 4), general
solution (eqn. 43), solution for EdS universe (eqn. 48), solution empty Universe (eqn. 54), structure freeze-out
time open Universe (eqn. 61, 62), general growth factor (eqn. 87, 88), relation matter and radiation density
fluctuation adiabatic regime (eqn. 106), gravitational potential fluctuation (eqn. 111), potential growth factor (eqn. 115),
peculiar gravity (eqn. 120), peculiar gravity growth factor (eqn. 121), peculiar velocity (eqn. 142), definition Peebles
factor (eqn. 143, 144), peculiar velocity growth factor (eqn. 148), peculiar velocity (eqn. 153, 158), definition bias
(eqn. 157), beta factor (eqn. 159)

Skip: section 7.3.5, 7.3.6

Use the next item, the cosmic flows draft, as illustration of linear velocity fields.

Cosmic Flows ppt

Cosmic Flows, h2pdf handout, pdf, colour

Read thoroughly. Know by heart: definition dipole.

Random Field Theory Handout

"Starting Conditions"

Important for exam !!!! Know by heart Fourier definitions, definition
power spectrum, relation power spectrum and correlation function, definition Gaussian distribution (in real space and
Fourier space), velocity and potential power spectrum. Important to be able to explain the influence of power spectrum
on development structure. Different contributions to power spectrum (primordial power spectrum: Harrison-Zeldovich
spectrum; transfer functions), normalization power spectrum, be able to explain features (slopes, maximum) in
CDM power spectrum).

Fluctuation Modes/Mass Scales Handout

Fluctations modes (adiabatic, isocurvature, isothermal)

Jeans Instability, Jeans Mass, Silk Damping, Silk Mass, Meszaros effect

Important for exam !!!! Know by heart: fluid eqns. of motion including
pressure, definition Jean instability, Jeans mass, sound velocity in pre- and post-recombination era, perturbation evolution
during radiation- and mass-domination in pre-recombination era (both sub- and super Jeans mass scale), development horizon,
Jeans and Silk damping mass as function of time.

Going nonlinear pdf

Exam material:

Zel'dovich approximation, Spherical Model, Ellipsoidal Model

Not exam material: Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (sect. 3: but good to
read); also skip sect. 4.2, 4.3

Know by heart: Zel'dovich, eqn. 31, 36, 49, 50, 52, 54, 63, 64, 71.

Know by heart: Spherical model, eqn. 79, 82, 83, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99

Know by heart: Ellipsoidal model, eqn. 110, 111, 116, 123

Also see handout "Systems of High Symmetry"

Systems of High Symmetry Handout

Includes exam material:

Spherical Model,

Ellipsoidal Model,

Press-Schechter Formalism

Exam material: study thoroughly. You will be expected to be able
to follow all equations in detail, and reproduce the line of reasoning.

Clusters and the Theory of the Cosmic Web pdf

van de Weygaert & Bond 2008a;

A Pan-Chromatic View of Clusters and the Large-Scale Structure;

Lecture notes in Physics 740; eds. M. Plionis, O. Lopez-Cruz, D. Hughes

Exam: read thoroughly; you will be expected to understand the overall picture (but
not the details); you may e.g. be asked to summarize the essential points of the cosmic web theory.

Observations and Morphology of the Cosmic Web pdf

van de Weygaert & Bond 2008b;

A Pan-Chromatic View of Clusters and the Large-Scale Structure;

Lecture notes in Physics 740; eds. M. Plionis, O. Lopez-Cruz, D. Hughes

Exam: read thoroughly; you will be expected to understand the overall picture (but
not the details); you may e.g. be asked to write a summary on major components of the cosmic web and the role of voids.

Statistical Measures of Large Scale Structure ppt

Statistical Measures of Large Scale Structure, h2pdf handout, pdf, colour

Exam: study thoroughly and in detail. Necessary to know the definition of
two-point correlation function, n-point correlation functions, ergodic theorem, ways to measure the correlation functions,
influence boundary and selection effects, power-law 2pt correlation function (parameters and values), power spectrum analysis,
Minkowski functionals;

CMB ppt

CMB, h2pdf handout, pdf, colour

For exam: Sachs-Wolfe effect; the rest: read thoroughly

(ie. you are supposed to know to answer a general question, without equations, on the CMB)

Exam: study thoroughly and in detail. Necessary to know the description of
CMB temperature fluctuations in spherical harmonics, power spectrum in spherical harmonics, Sachs-Wolfe effect (eqn.),
primary and secondary CMB anisotropies, sensitivity angular power spectrum to curvature, baryonic matter, matter and
dark energy. Rest: read thoroughly.

**Large Scale Structure movies**

It is highly instructive to study the following movies:

Galaxy Distribution:

SDSS3 galaxy redshift survey, zoom-outSDSS3 galaxy redshift survey, rotate

Computer Simulations Structure Formation:

Virgo LCDM simulationCourtesy: Volker Springel & Virgo consortium

Millennium simulation, zoom-in

Courtesy: Volker Springel & Virgo consortium

Millennium simulation, flythrough

Courtesy: Volker Springel & Virgo consortium

**Tentamen**

**Werkcollege (tutorials)**

The files with the werkcollege assignments will be attached.

You are expected to solve the assignments yourself that were not completed during the werkcollege/tutorial class. Please turn them in to your tutor (ie. Johan) !

**Presentation Topics:**

The presentation is part of the final exam. The intention is to investigate in some detail and to some depth one particular topic related to the formation of structure in the Universe. You are expected to acquaint yourself with a few of the essential literature references and to critically assess them (do not always take statements for granted, the field is moving quickly, knowledge may get outdated, viewpoints may change or be proven wrong).

A list of 19 topics from which you are invited to choose:

Presentation Topics pdf

We are looking forward to some illuminating and interesting presentations ! Recall this may be deep stuff and we need to learn far more ourselves about most issues too. So please educate us !

Rien and Johan

For searching the astronomical literature the two most important website to consult are those of

ADS: NASA Astrophysics Data Systemastro-ph: astrophysics e-print server

Notice that ADS allows you to expand your literature search via the references of the paper under consideration, as well as the links to the papers that refer to it. While using this possibility wisely you may quickly find most relevant studies. Also notice that the links of ADS to the journals in which the papers are published may need you to use your student number + password for the University library, or you have registered with the University Library, when working from outside the university (e.g. from home). Otherwise you will not be able to use the university subscription to these journals.

**Interesting Literature**

During the course several papers relating to the lecture content will be handed out. Here you may download them.

**Lecture Schedule:**

(provisional, changes possible)

Week | Dates Hoorcollege | Subject Hoorcollege | Dates Werkcollege | Subject Werkcollege |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | November 12 (c) November 14 (c) |
Introduction: Cosmic Inventory: Large Scale Structure & Cosmic Structure Formation Galaxies, Groups, Clusters, Superclusters, IGM Primordial Fluctuations & the Cosmic Microwave Background Cosmic Structure Formation Basic Cosmology: Einstein Field Equation, Cosmological Principle, Robertson-Walker metric, Redshift, Cosmic Distances Friedman Equations Cosmic Epochs | November 16 (w) | FRW Cosmology FRW universe solutions Observational Cosmology |

2 | November 19 (c) November 21 (c) |
Gravitational Instability: (Linear) Perturbation Theory, Structure Growth Cosmic Components & Influence on Cosmic Structure Formation: Radiation, Matter: Baryonic Matter & Dark Matter Dark Energy Cosmic Flows | November 23 (w) | Perturbation TheoryGrowth Factors |

3 | November 26 (c) November 28 (c) |
Random Density & Velocity Fields Multidimensional Gaussian distributions Filtering Power Spectrum Nonlinear Clustering & Structure Formation Hierarchical Clustering, Anisotropic Collapse and the Formation of Voids Spherical Model, Ellipsoidal Model |
November 30 (w) | Point Processes(computer task) |

4 | December 3 (c) December 5 (c) |
Lagrangian Perturbation Theory Zel'dovich formalism Adhesion approximation Phase Space Dynamics Phase Space Sheet Matter Scales Jeans Mass, Silk damping Cosmic Scenarios: Power spectra Cold Dark Matter, Hot Dark Matter non-Gaussian perturbations |
December 7(w) | Random Gaussian Fields(computer task) |

5 | December 10 (c) December 12 (c) |
Mapping the UniverseGalaxy sky surveys Galaxy redshift Surveys Lensing Surveys The Cosmic Web Observed Cosmic Web: Filaments, Sheets and Voids Clusters of Galaxies |
December 14 (w) | Power Spectrum & Spherical Model |

6 | December 17 (c) December 19 (c) |
Analysis of the Large Scale Structure Correlation functions Counts in Cells Power spectrum Higher-order statistics Topology: Genus, Minkowski functionals, Betti numbers Cosmic Web Analysis Tessellation Analysis, DTFE, Phase Space Sheet Multiscale Morphology Filter Watershed (Void Finder) Morse Theory, Skeleton \& Cosmic Spine | December 21 (w) | Two-point correlation function(computer task) |

7 | January 7 (c) January 9 (c) |
Hierarchical clustering:Press-Schechter and Excursion set formalism Peak-patch formalism Cosmic Tidal Fields & Cosmic Web Theory Virialization Cooling and Galaxy Formation Halo Model Biasing Nonlinear Structure Formation: N-body models N-body simulation techniques Cosmological Hydro simulation techniques Cosmological Computer Simulations: Cluster Simulations Large Scale Structure simulations |
January 11 (w) | Press-Schechter Formalism & Halo Mass Functions |

8 | January 14 (c) January 16 (c) |
Intergalactic Medium: Lya forest & WHIM Gravitational Lensing, Cosmic Shear Dark Ages, First Stars & Reionization Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies CMB anisotropies, temperature perturbations CMB anisotropies, experiments & satellites CMB anisotropies, analysis & maps CMB anisotropies, secondary perturbations CMB anisotropies, polarization |
January 18 (w) | N-body Simulations (computer task) |