**Docenten:**

Rien van de Weygaert,

ZG 186, tel. 3634086, weygaert@astro.rug.nl

Rien van de Weygaert,

ZG 187, tel. 3634086, weygaert@astro.rug.nl

**Announcements:**

The first lecture will be on monday morning September 3, 13.7 minutes after 9 !!!!

The tutorial lecture of thursday Sept. 20 has been shifted to tuesday Sept. 18. The
regular lecture will be tuesday Sept. 9:15-11:00, ZG 161. The afternoon lecture of Sept. 18, 15:15-17:00 will involve
the presentations "Early Cosmology".

The tutorial lectures of tuesday Sept. 18 and thursday Sept. 27 will involve student presentations on
Early Cosmology. For the schedule look at the item "Presentation" below.

While the exam has originally been schedule on tuesday October 30, it turns out that a large
number of students will be away to La Palma. At the thursday Sept. 13 lecture I would like to be
informed of the alternative options, following which I will possibly decide on another date.

September 21: new exam date has been fixed.

Exam: thursday November 15, 14:00-17:15, room ZG161

The lecture book by Barbara Ryden has been ordered by yours truly at Amazon.co.uk. The 15 copies
should arrive the end of the week of Sept. 20 or the week after. Please do not order yourself or
do not go and buy it at some other place if you indicated "yes" on the circulated list. I would
not like to end up with several unsold copies. You can pay me either by bank transfer or
cash. The price is Euro 62, including VAT(BTW) and shipping costs.

September 25: the books have arrived !

They will be handed over at the lecture of Sept. 25. If
you happen to be absent, you can collect your book from me afterwards (my office).

October 9: the lecture has been shifted from 15:15-17:00 to 9:15-11:00 in the morning, due
to the lecturer's evening lecture in Arnhem (and get there in time ...).

October 10: Correction task II of the werkcollege tasks of last week (Tutorial II): there were 3 typos in the
task of solving the expansion of the Universe for a general matter-dominated Universe (see below).

October 15: Correction task IV (computer task) of Tutorial II: general cosmic displacement,
including shear and vorticity, contained errors in equations. Substantial upgrade and
correction. (see below)

October 23: tuesday Oct. 23 yours truely has to be in the Hague. The lecture is moved to
thursday October 25, from 10:15-12:00.

November 13, 15:30-17:00: cosmology exam question hour, room ZG161

**Required Knowledge:**

There are no real requirements (except the usual basic knowledge of first and second year
mathematics, physics and astrophysics. Although some familiarity with General Relativity
will facilitate insight into the Universe, the lectures in the first week will provide
the necessary background.

**Lectures:**

The lecture schedule will be:

Monday 09:15-11:00 hoorcollege ZG 161

Tuesday 15:15-17:00 hoorcollege ZG 161

Thursday 14:15-16:00 werkcollege ZG 161

**Exam:**

The exam will consist of three/four elements:

written exam -- thursday November 15, 2007, 14:00-17:15

presentation
(topic historical cosmology)

2 computer tasks

**General Information:**

Practical information on the course -- literature, provisional schedule, topics presentation Early Cosmology -- you
may find in:

General Lecture Information

**Literature:**

The course will be based upon

Lecture notes,

to be distributed during the course

Introduction to Cosmology

Barbara Ryden

Addison Wesley, 2002

ISBN 0805389121 (hardcover)

This book entails a really fabulous introduction to the basic concepts of cosmology,
nearly entirely up to date. It is one of the few textbooks really fun reading, a marvel of didactic writing.
In particular for the later stages of the lecture series -- Cosmic Microwave Background, Cosmic Nucleosynthesis,
Inflation -- I will assume you have the book.

In addition, there are three general cosmology books that from time to time you may wish to consult (but which
are not obligatory fare for this course !!!). They are somewhat more demanding than the Ryden book, yet
contain a lot of useful information,

Cosmological Physics

John Peacock

Cambridge University Press, 1998

ISBN 0521422701 (paper)

Cosmology, The Origin and Evolution of Cosmic Structure

P. Coles, F. Lucchin

Wiley, 2n edition, 2002

ISBN 0471489093

Principles of Physical Cosmology

P.J.E. Peebles

Princeton Univ. Press

ISBN 0691074283

**Lecture Notes:**

Below you find a listing which will gradually be updated. You may download the pdf and ppt files.

Introduction & Overview ppt

General Relativity pdf

The Cosmological Principle: Evidence ppt

(still some modifications needed, on cosmic dipole)

Robertson-Walker metric pdf

Cosmological Principle & handout

Robertson-Walker metric

Observational Cosmology

Cosmic Dynamics: & handout

FRW Cosmology

Cosmic Constituents ppt

(still needs
substantial extension on dark energy)

FRW Universe: Solutions handout

Evolution Hubble Parameter H(t) handout

and: Cosmic Time

Evolution Omega & Flatness Problem handout

and: Horizons & Horizon Problem

and: Inflationary Universe

The Hot Big Bang handout

& Thermal History of the Universe

and: Cosmic Microwave Background

**Tentamen/Written Exam**

The written exam is on:

Thursday November 15, 14:00-17:15; room ZG161The required material for the exam is the following:

Ryden: chapter 3, 9, 10, 11

General Relativity: pdf file

metric tensor, Einstein field equation, energy-momentum tensor

(not more, of these the definitions and meaning)

the Cosmological Principle:

Significance, Observational Evidence Isotropic & Homogeneous Universe, Implications Geometry Universe

content ppt file, to be downloaded from webpage (see lecture notes)

Robertson-Walker metric: handout

Cosmological Observables: handout

includes: redshift, Hubble expansion, luminosity & angular diameter distance

Observational Cosmology: handout

conversion from coordinate distance to redshift, Mattig's relations, Hubble diagram (to 2nd order, with q)

Friedmann equations: handout

includes: defn. Omega, acceleration parameter q, energy equation,

it will be expected that you will be able to manipulate and make calculations with the FRW equations !!!!!

Cosmic constituents:

obligatory: the rough inventory of all ingredients,

including their equation of state (incl. the distinction between cosmological constant and generic dark energy),

and implied evolution as function of expansion factor a(t)

expected: having read the content of accompanying ppt file

(ie. you will have to be able to provide an informative text

on the way the properties of these constituents are measured, but need to know this by heart).

FRW universes: evolution H(t), Omega(t), cosmic time (but not the observational constraints) : handouts

it will be expected that you will be able to manipulate and make calculations with the FRW equations !!!!!

FRW Universe solutions/expansion histories: handout

includes: everything, except for the "historic" universes (Einstein, de Sitter, Lemaitre)

Inflationary Universe:: handout + Ryden chapter 11

Flatness + Horizon problem (technically, with eqns.)

Monopole Problem + Structure formation (only qualitatively)

Basic physics (only rudimentary, inflaton field, de Sitter expansion solving flatness & horizon problems)

Thermal History of the Big Bang:: handout + Ryden 10

basic physics Hot Big Bang

Cosmic Nucleosynthesis (Ryden 10)

Cosmic Microwave Background: handout + Ryden 9

For reference, the exams of the years 2004 and 2005 you may find here:

Exam cosmology 2004Exam cosmology 2005

**Presentation: Early Cosmology**

Attached you find the files with topics for your presentation on "Early Cosmology".

Chose the topic of your choice, subsequently inform me about your choice. Alternatively you may choose a topic not mentioned in the list. In that case consult lecturer. After approval you can set to work on the subject.

Early CosmologyYou are expected to prepare a 10-15 minute presentation (with ppt or pdf notes) !

The first set of 11 early cosmology presentations will be on Sept. 18, 15:15-17:00. Given the large number of participants a second slot of presentations will follow on thursday Sept. 27, 14:15-16:00. For the schedule of the presentations see

Early Cosmology Schedule**Werkcollege (tutorials)**

Attached you find the files with the werkcollege assignments.

Werkcollege Sept. 6-13: General Relativity, task 1-4Werkcollege Oct 4: Newtonian Cosmology, Hubble expansion, task 1-4

Werkcollege Oct 11: Solutions to the FRW Universe, 1-2

Werkcollege Oct 18: Observational Cosmology, 1-3

Important: the assignments that were not completed during the werkcollege/tutorial class, you are expected to solve yourself at home. Completed tasks should be turned in to your lecturer. Completed and approved tasks are required for completion of the course.

Thus: please turn them in to your tutor (ie. me) !

For questions and advice on the tasks you are of course welcome to contact your "werkcollegedocent", which is me ! Room 186 !

For searching the astronomical literature the two most important website to consult are those of

ADS: NASA Astrophysics Data Systemastro-ph: astrophysics e-print server

Notice that ADS allows you to expand your literature search via the references of the paper under consideration, as well as the links to the papers that refer to it. While using this possibility wisely you may quickly find most relevant studies. Also notice that the links of ADS to the journals in which the papers are published may need you to use your student number + password for the University library, or you have registered with the University Library, when working from outside the university (e.g. from home). Otherwise you will not be able to use the university subscription to these journals.

**Interesting Literature**

During the course several papers relating to the lecture content will be handed out.

Here you may download them (will be updated during the course).

Hubble E., 1929, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 15 (5 pp.)

Observational Tests World Models

Sandage A., 1988, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 26, 561

Discovery Cosmic Microwave Background

Penzias A.A. & Wilson R.W., 1965, Astrophys. J. 142, 419

Discovery & Explanation Cosmic Microwave Background

Dick R.H., Peebles P.J.E., Roll P.G., Wilkinson D.T., 1965, Astrophys. J. 142, 414

SNIa discovery Lambda: High-z Supernova Search Team

Riess et al., 1998, Astron. J., 116, 1009

SNIa discovery Lambda: Supernova Cosmology Project

Perlmutter et al., 1999, Astrophys. J., 517, 565

Scale Factors & critical values Lambda in Friedmann universes

Felten J.E., 1986, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 689

Rindler: visual horizons in world models

Rindler W., 1956, MNRAS, 116, 662

Harrison: Hubble spheres and Particle horizons

Harrison, E., 1991, Astrophys. J., 383, 60

Guth: Inflationary Universe

Guth, A.H., 1981, Phys.Rev.D., 23, 347

**Lecture Schedule:**

(provisional, changes possible)

Week | Dates Hoorcollege | Subject Hoorcollege | Dates Werkcollege | Subject Werkcollege |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Sep. 3 (c) Sep. 4 (c) | The Hot Big Bang:
a Review and Introduction The metric Universe: General Relativity, basics and essentials | Sep. 6 (w) | Werkcollege I |

2 | Sep. 10 (c) Sep. 11 (c) |
The Cosmological Principle:Cosmic Time and Weyl's Postulate Observational Evidence Cosmological Principle Observational Evidence Isotropic Universe Observational Evidence Homogeneous Universe | Sep. 13 (w) | Werkcollege I |

3 | Sep. 17 (c) Sep. 18 (c) | Robertson-Walker metricCosmological Redshift Hubble Expansion Cosmological Observables in a Geometric Universe Observational Cosmology | Sep. 20 (w) | Presentations I:Cosmology in History |

4 | Sep. 24 (c)Sep. 25 (c) | Friedman EquationsCosmological Parameters: Hubble parameter, Omega, q and curvature Cosmic Components: Radiation, (Dark) Matter and Dark Energy | Sep. 28 (w) | Presentations II:Cosmology in History |

5 | Oct. 1 (c) Oct. 2 (c) | Cosmological FRW Solutions: Radiation- and Matter-dominated Universes, Radiation-Matter Equivalence Dark Energy and Cosmic Acceleration General FRW solutions, Matter-Dominated Universes, Flat Universes, ... Cosmic Horizons | Oct. 4(w) | Werkcollege II/Computer Task I |

6 | Oct. 8 (c) Oct. 9 (c) |
Measuring Cosmological ParametersThe Age of the Universe Concordance Cosmology Thermal History of the Universe Primordial Nucleosynthesis | Oct. 11 (w) | Werkcollege III/Computer Task II |

7 | Oct. 15 (c) Oct. 16 (c) |
The Cosmic Microwave Background: Recombination, Decoupling and Freeze-out Thermalization and Blackbody Spectrum of the CMB Anisotropries of the CMB | Oct. 18 (w) | Werkcollege IV |

8 | Oct. 22 (c) Oct. 23 (c) |
The problems of standard cosmology:Flatness Problem, Horizon Problem, Structure Problem, Monopole Problem Inflation & the Inflationary Universe | Oct. 26 (c) | Chronicle of the Universefrom Neutrino Decoupling back to the Planck Time |