**Lecturers:**

Rien van de Weygaert,

ZG 186, tel. 3634086, weygaert@astro.rug.nl

Saikat Chatterjee,

ZG 192, tel. 3638689, saikat@astro.rug.nl

**Lectures:**

The lecture schedule will be:

Tuesday 11:00-13:00 hoorcollege/lecture Kapteynborg 5419 - 245

Thursday 13:00-15:00 hoorcollege/lecture Kapteynborg 5419 - 161

Monday 15:00-17:00 tutorial Kapteynborg 5419 - 230

**Announcements:**

First lecture will be on monday November 14, the first tutorial on tuesday November 15

November 15: tutorial/werkcollege: due to an unfortunate writing mistake, confusion on the time of the tutorial meant
we showed up at 13:00 instead of 11:00. Mistake is entirely mine (Rien). In the meantime it has been ccrrected on this
webpage. Saikat and i will try to find a means to planning an extra tutorial. I will also discuss this at thursdays
lecture. Again, my sincerest apologies.

starting thursday Nov. 24: Thursday lecture room ZG161 (Kapteynborg, Kapteyn Astron. Institute)

starting Monday Nov. 28: tutorial lecture, Monday 15:00-17:00

Monday Nov. 28: instead of tutorial this will be a regular lecture, given thursday Dec. 1 there will be no lectures.

Thursday December 8: posting list of special presentation topics

Thursday December 15:

Because of the Kastanjeborrel (for which ZG161 will be a venue),
the lecture room on thursday Dec. 15 is:

Kapteynborg, 519.0114

Thursday January 19 (13:00-15:00): Presentations on special topic, 1st session

Thursday February 2 (13:00-15:00): Presentations on special topic, 2nd session

Thursday January 26 (14:00-17:00): Tentamen/Exam, room 5161.0165 (Bernoulliborg)

**Required Knowledge:**

It will be assumed you will have followed the basic lecture course "Cosmology". It is
not a formal requisite.

A recapitulation, overview and summary of the necessary knowledge of basic Cosmology (including some General Relativity),
will be the subject of the first week's lecture.

**Exam:**

The exam will consist of three/four elements:

written exam -- January 26, 2017: 14:00-17:00

presentation special topic -- January 19, 2017/February 2, 2017 (13:00-15:00)

2 computer tasks

**Course practicalities:**

Course Practicalities ppt

Course Practicalities pdf

**Literature:**

The course will be based upon the lecture notes, to be distributed during the course.

No specific book will be followed. Nonetheless, several books are recommended for the purpose

of the necessary backup information, overlapping substantially with parts of the lecture material:

Cosmology

Steven Weinberg

Oxford University Press, 2008

ISBN 978-0198526827

Cosmological Physics

John Peacock

Cambridge University Press, 1998

ISBN 0521422701 (paper)

The most up-to-date books focussing on structure and galaxy formation are:

Galaxy
Formation

Malcolm Longair

Astronomy & Astrophysics Library, 2nd ed., Springer

ISBN 9783540734772 (hb)

Galaxy Formation and
Evolution

H.J. Mo, F. van den Bosch, S.D.M. White

Cambridge Univ. Press

ISBN 978-0521857932 (hb)

In addition, THE book on basic cosmology that I will always warmly recommend (but which you are not required
to have) - one of the few textbooks really fun reading and a marvel of didactic writing -- is:

Introduction to Cosmology

Barbara Ryden

Addison Wesley, 2002

ISBN 0805389121 (hardcover)

**Interesting Scientific Publications **

During the course several papers relating to the lecture content will be handed out. Here you may download them.

BBKS Bardeen, Bond, Kaiser & Szalay 1986, Gaussian Random Fields

**Lecture Notes & Exam Material:**

The course is based upon the lecture notes. Below you find a listing of the notes.

The notes you can download in 3 forms:

* ppt file, a colour pdf (handout, 2 slices/page) and a greyscale pdf (handout, 2 slices/page)

* pdf file texed notes

* xerox copy, distributed during the course

Below you find a listing of the notes, and I will notify you when they become available. Subsequently, they
will be available for downloading.

Please check the notes you have. When you are missing one or more items contact me.

FRW cosmology ppt

FRW Cosmology pdf

study thoroughly: basic to understanding of the course

Overview: Large Scale Structure of the Universe ppt

Overview: Large Scale Structure of the Universe pdf

study thoroughly, overview of course material

Gravitational Instability: outline & overview pdf; hand-written notes

read thoroughly

Gravitational Instability & Linear perturbation Theory pdf

Key chapter !!!!!! You must be able to follow all equations
(and work with them).

Know by heart: comoving vs. physical perturbation quantities (eqn. 2,3,10,15,16,18), full and linear fluid equations (particularly: eqns. sect. 6.1), linear perturbation eqn.(eqn. 4), general
solution (eqn. 43), solution for EdS universe (eqn. 48), solution empty Universe (eqn. 54), structure freeze-out
time open Universe (eqn. 61, 62), general growth factor (eqn. 87, 88), relation matter and radiation density
fluctuation adiabatic regime (eqn. 106), gravitational potential fluctuation (eqn. 111), potential growth factor (eqn. 115),
peculiar gravity (eqn. 120), peculiar gravity growth factor (eqn. 121), peculiar velocity (eqn. 142), definition Peebles
factor (eqn. 143, 144), peculiar velocity growth factor (eqn. 148), peculiar velocity (eqn. 153, 158), definition bias
(eqn. 157), beta factor (eqn. 159)

Skip: section 7.3.5, 7.3.6

Cosmic Flows pptx

Cosmic Flows pdf

Read thoroughly.

Modes Primordial Fluctuations pdf, hand-written notes

Jeans Instability, Jeans Mass & Cosmic Mass Scales pdf, hand-written notes

Fluctuation modes (adiabatic, isocurvature, isothermal)

Jeans Instability, Jeans Mass, Silk Damping, Silk Mass, Meszaros effect

Important for exam !!!! Know by heart: fluid eqns. of motion including
pressure, definition Jean instability, Jeans mass, sound velocity in pre- and post-recombination era, perturbation evolution
during radiation- and mass-domination in pre-recombination era (both sub- and super Jeans mass scale), development horizon,
Jeans and Silk damping mass as function of time.

Random Fields & Power Spectrum pptx

Random Fields & Power Spectrum pdf

Gaussian Random Fields hand-written notes

"Starting Conditions" cosmic structure formation

Important for exam !!!! Know by heart Fourier definitions, definition
power spectrum, relation power spectrum and correlation function, definition Gaussian distribution (in real space and
Fourier space), velocity and potential power spectrum. Important to be able to explain the influence of power spectrum
on development structure. Different contributions to power spectrum (primordial power spectrum: Harrison-Zeldovich
spectrum; transfer functions), normalization power spectrum, be able to explain features (slopes, maximum) in
CDM power spectrum).

Going nonlinear pdf

Exam material:

Zel'dovich approximation

Not exam material: Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (sect. 3: but good to
read), Spherical Model, Ellipsoidal Model;

also skip sect. 4.2, 4.3

Know by heart: Zel'dovich, eqn. 31, 36, 49, 50, 52, 54, 63, 64, 71.

Structure Formation and Evolution: Zeldovich & Adhesion formalism pptx

Structure Formation and Evolution: Zeldovich & Adhesion formalism pdf

Exam material: study thoroughly

Zel'dovich approximation

Structure Formation and Evolution: Nbody simulations pptx

Structure Formation and Evolution: Nbody simulations pdf

Read thoroughly.

Large Scale Structure Galaxy Surveys pptx

Large Scale Structure Galaxy Surveys pdf

read thoroughly: while not necessary to know all details, you may
be asked to reproduce general facts on e.g. SDSS survey.
Necessary to know in detail: listing of "cosmic fossils" (and what they mean), galaxy luminosity function,
Schechter function, SURVEY DEPTH, survey strategies, photometric redshifts, magnitude- and volume-limited surveys, REDSHIFT SPACE DISTORTIONS ...

Statistical Measures of Large Scale Structure pptx

Statistical Measures of Large Scale Structure, h2pdf handout, pdf, colour

Exam: study thoroughly and in detail. Necessary to know the definition of
two-point correlation function, n-point correlation functions, ergodic theorem, ways to measure the correlation functions,
influence boundary and selection effects, power-law 2pt correlation function (parameters and values)

Clusters and the Theory of the Cosmic Web pdf

van de Weygaert & Bond 2008a;

A Pan-Chromatic View of Clusters and the Large-Scale Structure;

Lecture notes in Physics 740; eds. M. Plionis, O. Lopez-Cruz, D. Hughes

Exam: read thoroughly; you will be expected to understand the overall picture (but
not the details).

**Large Scale Structure movies**

It is highly instructive to study the following movies:

**Tentamen**

**Werkcollege (tutorials)**

The files with the werkcollege assignments will be attached.

You are expected to solve the assignments yourself that were not completed during the werkcollege/tutorial class, within 1 week after the tutorial class. Please turn them in to your tutor (ie. Saikat) !

Werkcollege 1: FRW cosmologyWerkcollege 2: Cosmological Fluid equations, physical & comoving

Werkcollege 3: Perturbation equations: coupled & Lagrangian

Werkcollege 4: Gaussian random fields (computer assignment)

Werkcollege 5: (Stochastic) random fields & Fourier Description

Werkcollege 6: Spherical (collapse/expansion) model

Werkcollege 7: Point Processes & Correlation Functions (computer assignment)

**Presentation Topics:**

The presentation is part of the final exam. The intention is to investigate in some detail and to some depth one particular topic related to the formation of structure in the Universe. You are expected to acquaint yourself with a few of the essential literature references and to critically assess them (do not always take statements for granted, the field is moving quickly, knowledge may get outdated, viewpoints may change or be proven wrong).

The special topics and presentations should be done in groups of two. In order to avoid overlap, inform the lecturer by email of 1) your names & 2) the topic. In case of overlap with the topic chosen by another group, we may ask you to chose another topics. Send this information before the end of week 50 (ie. at the latest on saturday Dec. 16).

A list of 19 topics from which you are invited to choose:

Presentation Topics pdf

The presentations will be on:

thursday January 19 13:00-15:00 ZG161

thursday February 2 13:00-15:00 ZG161

Presentation Schedule pdf

We are looking forward to some illuminating and interesting presentations ! Recall this may be deep stuff and we need to learn far more ourselves about most issues too. So please educate us !

Rien

For searching the astronomical literature the two most important website to consult are those of

ADS: NASA Astrophysics Data Systemastro-ph: astrophysics e-print server

Notice that ADS allows you to expand your literature search via the references of the paper under consideration, as well as the links to the papers that refer to it. While using this possibility wisely you may quickly find most relevant studies. Also notice that the links of ADS to the journals in which the papers are published may need you to use your student number + password for the University library, or you have registered with the University Library, when working from outside the university (e.g. from home). Otherwise you will not be able to use the university subscription to these journals.

**Lecture Schedule:**

(provisional, changes possible)

Week | Dates Hoorcollege | Subject Hoorcollege | Dates Werkcollege | Subject Werkcollege |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | November 14 (c) November 17 (c) |
Introduction: Cosmic Inventory: Large Scale Structure & Cosmic Structure Formation Galaxies, Groups, Clusters, Superclusters, IGM Cosmic Structure Formation Primordial Fluctuations & the Cosmic Microwave Background Basic Cosmology: Einstein Field Equation, Cosmological Principle, Robertson-Walker metric, Redshift, Cosmic Distances Friedman Equations Cosmic Epochs | November 15 (w) | FRW Cosmology FRW universe solutions Observational Cosmology |

2 | November 21 (c) November 23 (c) |
Gravitational Instability: (Linear) Perturbation Theory, Structure Growth Cosmic Components & Influence on Cosmic Structure Formation: Radiation, Matter: Baryonic Matter & Dark Matter Dark Energy Cosmic Flows | November 22 (w) | Perturbation TheoryGrowth Factors |

3 | November 28 (c) December 1 (c) |
Random Density & Velocity Fields Multidimensional Gaussian distributions Filtering Power Spectrum Random Fields & Power Spectrum Nonlinear Clustering & Structure Formation Hierarchical Clustering, Anisotropic Collapse and the Formation of Voids Spherical Model, Ellipsoidal Model |
November 29 (w) | Perturbation TheoryGrowth Factors |

4 | December 5 (c) December 8 (c) |
Lagrangian Perturbation Theory Zel'dovich formalism Adhesion approximation Phase Space Dynamics Phase Space Sheet Matter Scales Jeans Mass, Silk damping Cosmic Scenarios: Power spectra Cold Dark Matter, Hot Dark Matter non-Gaussian perturbations |
December 6(w) | Spherical Collapse & Model |

5 | December 12 (c) December 15 (c) |
Mapping the UniverseGalaxy sky surveys Galaxy redshift Surveys Lensing Surveys The Cosmic Web Observed Cosmic Web: Filaments, Sheets and Voids Clusters of Galaxies |
December 13 (w) | Power Spectrum & Spherical Model |

6 | December 19 (c) December 22 (c) |
Analysis of the Large Scale Structure Correlation functions Counts in Cells Power spectrum Higher-order statistics Topology: Genus, Minkowski functionals, Betti numbers Cosmic Web Analysis Tessellation Analysis, DTFE, Phase Space Sheet Multiscale Morphology Filter Watershed (Void Finder) Morse Theory, Skeleton \& Cosmic Spine | December 20 (w) | Two-point correlation function(computer task) |

7 | January 9 (c) January 12 (c) |
Hierarchical clustering:Press-Schechter and Excursion set formalism Peak-patch formalism Cosmic Tidal Fields & Cosmic Web Theory Virialization Cooling and Galaxy Formation Halo Model Biasing Nonlinear Structure Formation: N-body models N-body simulation techniques Cosmological Hydro simulation techniques Cosmological Computer Simulations: Cluster Simulations Large Scale Structure simulations |
January 10 (w) | Press-Schechter Formalism & Halo Mass Functions |

8 | January 16 (c) January 19 (c) |
Intergalactic Medium: Lya forest & WHIM Gravitational Lensing, Cosmic Shear Dark Ages, First Stars & Reionization Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies CMB anisotropies, temperature perturbations CMB anisotropies, experiments & satellites CMB anisotropies, analysis & maps CMB anisotropies, secondary perturbations CMB anisotropies, polarization |
January 17 (w) | N-body Simulations (computer task) |